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 الوحدة 13 لغة انجليزية 2ث شرح روووووووعه

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الوحدة 13 لغة انجليزية 2ث شرح روووووووعه Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: الوحدة 13 لغة انجليزية 2ث شرح روووووووعه   الوحدة 13 لغة انجليزية 2ث شرح روووووووعه Emptyالسبت 14 أبريل 2012 - 10:09

ambition
meaningless
silent
chat
inform
regret
meaningful
silence
prove
professor
priority
optician
emergency
well-known
ambulance
customers
block the road
arrival time
politician
time management
space
nod
edge
radio
surgery
rush
eventually
transfer
definition
ministry
postpone = put off
interrupt الطمُوح
بلا معني / بلا مغزى
صامت
يدردش / يتحدث
يخبر
يندم
ذو مغزى / له معني
الصمت
يثبت / يبرهن
أستاذ جامعي
أولوية
صانع النظارات
حالة طارئة
معروف / مشهور
سيارة إسعاف
العملاء
يسد الطريق
وقت الوصول
سياسي
إدارة الوقت
فراغ / الفضاء
يشير برأسه علامة الموافقة
حافة
جهاز لاسلكي / راديو
جراحة / عيادة
يندفع
في النهاية
ينقل
تعريف
وزارة
يؤجل
يقاطع include
pour
announcement
conductor
paramedic
ambitious
inclusion
proof
lecturer
civil engineer
contact
moral
tank
passenger
newsreader
traffic jam
departure time
therapy
a golf ball
shake (his) head
mechanic
probably
costs
frequent
keep trying
correction
place = put
accomplish
minister
cancel
plumber
jeweller يشمل
يسكب / يصب
إعلان
كمساري / موصل
مسعف
طمُوح
تضمين / ضم
برهان / دليل
مُحاضر
مهندس مدني
يتصل بـ
درس أو مغزى من قصة
خزان
راكب / مسافر
قارئ الأخبار
ازدحام حركة المرور
وقت المغادرة
علاج
كرة جولف
يهز رأسه علامة الرفض
ميكانيكي
من المحتمل
تكاليف
معتاد / متكرر
يستمر في المحاولة
تصحيح
يضع
يحقق
وزير
يلغي
سباك
جواهرجي
• Prepositions:
full of مليء بـ filled with مليء بـ
revise for exams يراجع من أجل الامتحانات phone him on his mobile يتصل به علي تليفونه المحمول
arrange to + inf. يرتب لـ arrange for + n. يرتب لـ
help with a problem يساعد في حل مشكلة instead of بدلا من
call to someone ينادي علي شخص become friends with يصبح صديقا لـ
have an operation تُجري له عملية (جراحية) phone someone at the hospital يتصل بشخص في المستشفي
half an hour away from علي بعد نصف ساعة من phone for an ambulance يتصل لطلب سيارة إسعاف
ask for يطلب ask about يسأل عن
write to someone يكتب لشخص write about something يكتب عن شيء
cut (himself) off from others يعزل نفسه عن الآخرين move around the room يتحرك في أنحاء الغرفة
break down يتعطل on the beach علي البلاج

• Derivatives:
verb noun adjective adverb
mean يعني meaning معني meaningfulله معنى
includeيشمل inclusion ضم / اشتمال
ambition الطموح ambitious
silence يُسكت silence سكوت/ صمت silent صامت silently في صمت
announce
يذيع / يعلن announcement إعلان
Announcerمذيع
regret يندم regret الندم regrettable مؤسف
informيخبر information معلومات informed / مطلع
موثوق في معلوماته

• Important Vocabulary for translation and composition:
underground water مياه جوفية
compass بوصلة
sound effects مؤثرات صوتية
a campaign against حملة ضد
crushing defeat هزيمة ساحقة
summit conference مؤتمر قمة
strengthen relations يدعم العلاقات
بيان صحفي press statement slight damage ضرر خفيف
local time التوقيت المحلي
counter attack هجوم مضاد
physiotherapy العلاج الطبيعي
Arab League جامعة الدول العربي
negotiations مفاوضات
agenda جدول الأعمال
fight terrorism يحارب الإرهاب

 announcement – advertisement – commercial
announcement إعلان (غالبا بصفة رسمية) عن شيء حدث أو سيحدث
* The boss said that he had an important announcement to make.
advertisement إعلان الهدف منه إقناع الناس بشراء منتج أو خدمة معينة
* I often read newspaper advertisements for new cars.
commercial إعلان تجاري يُذاع في الراديو أو التليفزيون بين البرامج
* There are often too many commercials between TV programs.
*****************************
 regret
regret + nيندم على
* He regretted his mistake.
regret + to-inf. يأسف لأته مضطر لعمل شيء
* We regret to tell you that the trip will be cancelled.
regret + V+ing يندم على شيء عمله من قبل
* I regret spending all my money on clothes last week.
regrettable يؤسف له
* His behaviour at the party was very regrettable.
regretful نادم
* He was regretful when he had to leave his old house.
*****************************
 compare
compare to يقـارن بـ ( و تستخـدم غالبـا مـع مقارنـة شـيء بشـيء )
* London is large, compared to Cairo.
compare with يقـارن بـ ( و تستخـدم غالبـا مـع مقـارنـة الأشخـاص و الأشيـاء )
1- Living in a town can't compare with living in the country.
2- His parents always compare him with him friends.
compared to / with = in comparison with / to بالمقارنة بـ
* Compared to your car, mine is expensive. ( comparison )
In comparison with your car, mine is expensive.
*****************************
 conductor
conductor محصل تذاكر ( فى أتوبيس أو قطار )
* Ahmed is a bus conductor.
conductor موصل حرارة أو كهرباء
* Wood isn't a conductor of electricity.
*****************************
 politician - diplomat
politician رجل السياسة
* Yesterday's interview was a debate between two politicians.
diplomat دبلوماسى ( فى سفارة أو فى وزارة الخارجية )
* Ahmed works as a diplomat in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
 remind - remember
remind someone to (inf) يــُذكر ـ يتذكـر بواسطـة شخـص
* Remind me to bring my camera.
remind someone of (noun) يــُذكر
* He reminds me of his father.
remember يتـذكر من تلقاء نفسـه
* She remembered to take medicine.
* Remember me to your family. بلغ تحياتي لأسرتك
remembering التذكر
* He is good at remembering names.
*****************************
 prove - proof
prove يثبـت
* He proved that he is innocent.
proof دليل ـ برهان
* Can you provide any proof of identity?
*****************************
 life - a life - the life
life الحيـاة بوجـه عـام ( إسـم لا يعـد ولا يسبقـه أداه )
1- There is no life on the moon.
2- Life is fun.
a life – ( lives ) نـوع معيـن مـن حيـاة ( إسـم يعـد ) غالبـا يسبقهـا صفـه
* He leads a happy life.
a life of + إسـم غيـر عـاقـل ( lives )
* He leads a life of fun.
the life of + إسـم عـاقـل ( lives )
* What do you know about the life of the President Hosni Mubarak?
*****************************
 by – on - in
by ( car / taxi / train / plane / boat …etc) تستخدم قبل وسائل المواصلات إذا لم يسبقها أداة أو صفة ملكية.
* He went to Cairo by bus.
on ( car – taxi ) تستخدم قبل وسائل المواصلات إذا سبقها أداة أو صفة ملكية ما عدا
* He travelled to Cairo on the train.
in ( car – taxi ) تستخدم إذا سبقها أداة أو صفة ملكية قبل
* We went to Mansoura in my car.
*****************************
In what way = Howبأى طريقه / كيف؟
* In what way is your new house different from the old one?
Come and + inf. أسلوب يستخدم للدعوة
* Come and have tea with me.
including (حرف جر) بما فيه / وهذا يشمل
* Twenty people were injured in the accident including 3 children.

Sayings and their meanings:
•The road to success is not straight. = not everything in is easy life.

•Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget. = You don't have many truly good friends in your life, and when you have them they are friends for life

•Some people are lonely because they build walls instead of bridges.= Some people cut themselves off from other people and isolate themselves, and for this reason they don't have friends.

•Life is not a race. It's a journey. = Rushing through life won't make you a winner.

•It's not what you do that you should regret, it's what you don't do. = Do and experience as much as you can in your life

•If you do good things in your life, you will be remembered for these things. = People don't forget the good things that other people do

•If you don't succeed, try, try and try again = never give up, keep trying and finally you'll succeed.

1) Zero Conditional

If + present simple present simple
•تعبر هذه الحالة عن حقيقة أو عـادة
1- If water freezes, it turns into ice.
2- If a volcano erupts, it sends dust into the atmosphere.
3- If I have time, I usually walk to school.

الحاله الأولى 2) Conditional " If "
 يستخدم النوع الأول للدلاله على شئ محتمل الحدوث فى المستقبل أو التنبؤ بحدوث شئ فى المستقبل أو افتراض حدوث شئ فى المستقبل:-
1- If you hurry, we'll catch the bus.
2- You will become ill if you eat bad food.
3- If the weather is fine tomorrow, we'll go to Aswan.
 تستخدم لإعطاء وعد:-
* If you get high marks, I will give you a present.
 تستخدم فى العرض و الإقتراح:-
1- If you need a ticket, I will get you one.
2- If you like visiting pyramids, we will go tomorrow.
 تستخدم فى التحذيرات والتهديدات:-
1- If you don't apologize, I will never speak to you again.
2- My father will be angry with Noha if she breaks dishes again.

لاحظ الأتى:-
 ممكن أن نستبدل "will" ونضع مكانها "can \ can't \ should \ may \ might":-
1- If you want a car, I can buy one for you.
2- If you haven't TV, you can't watch the match. Can you?
3- If he goes to school, he should wear uniform.

 من الممكن أن نستخدم صيغة الأمر فى جواب الشرط بدلاً من "will":-
1- If you are tired go to sleep.
2- If you are ready, do what you want.
3- If you have problem, ask your parents for help.
4- If you see Frank, give him a message for me, please.

 وقد تعبر هذه الحالة عن موقف ربما يكون حقيقي في المضارع:
* If you are hot, I'll buy you a cool drink.

 لاحظ انه يمكن استخدام it is + adj. + to + inf. في الجزء الثاني من الجملة:
* If you go to Italy, it is possible to find work there.

 لاحظ صيغة السؤال مع : if
1- What will you do if you find yourself in a dangerous situation?
2- What will happen if you lose all your money?

 يمكن استخدام الكلمات الآتية بدلا من If في الحالة الأولي:

1- You can borrow my car as long as you drive carefully.
2- Provided that you have a lot of money, you can buy this car.

الحاله الثانيه 3) Conditional " If "

 يستخدم النوع الثانى للتعبير عن شئ غير محتمل الحدوث فى المستقبل أو الحاضر أو للتعبير عن إفتراض غير حقيقى أو خيالى:-
1- If I had a million pounds, I would buy a ship.
2- If she got up late, she wouldn't catch the train.
 يلاحظ فى الحاله الثانيه استخدام "were" بعد كل الضمائر لأنها تعبر عن موقف خيالى "غير حقيقى" :-
1- If I were a bird, I would fly everywhere.
2- If I were a king, I'd help poor people.
3- If she were older, I'd marry her.
 يمكن أن نستخدم "could \ might" بدلاً من "would" كالأتى:-
1- If we had a calculator, we could work quicker.
2- If I could relax, I'd do well in exams.
3- If she got up earlier, she might catch the 5 o'clock train.
 يمكن أن تعبر الحالة الثانية أحيانا عن شيء مستحيل:
1- If I were ten years younger, I'd go mountaineering.
2- If I were a bird, I'd fly.
 تستخدم هذه الحالة للتعبير عن النصيحة:
* You should work hard. (If…)
If I were you, I’d work hard.
لاحظ الأتى:-

 لاحظ عكس الجملة في الإثبات و النفي:
* He doesn’t pay attention in class, so he gets poor grades. (He wouldn’t…)
He wouldn’t get poor grades if he paid attention in class.

 لاحظ أنه يمكن استخدام was/were مع I/he/she/it:
1- If I was/were rich, I’d travel round the world.
2- She isn’t a doctor. She can’t write a prescription. (If)
If she was/were a doctor, she could write a prescription.


 في حالة استخدام so أو because بدلا من if تعود الجملة إلي ما كانت عليه قبل استخدام if:
* If he had my telephone number, he could give me a ring. (so/because)
He doesn’t have my telephone number, so he can’t give me a ring.
He can’t give me a ring because he doesn’t have my telephone number.

 عندما تبدأ الجملة بـ were يأتي بعدها : to+inf.
1- If he pleased his boss, he would get a rise. (Were..)
Were he to please his boss, he would get a rise.
 وإذا كانت were موجودة أصلا في الجملة تأتي مكان if:
2- If I were rich, I would buy a big house.
Were I rich, I would buy a big house.

 بدلا من If في الحالة الثانية نستخدم:

* Without his help, I would fail. (If it…)
If it weren’t for his help, I would fail.

 لاحظ صيغة السؤال
1- What would you do if you won a lot of money?
2- If you won a lot of money, what would you do?

 لاحظ انه يمكن استخدام التركيب الاتى في الحالة الأولى و الثانية بدلا من If :

1- If he trains hard, he will win the race.
2- Should he train hard, he will win the race.

الحاله الثالثه 4) Conditional " If "

 يعبر النوع الثالث عن شئ مستحيل الحدوث لأنه لم يكن أصلاً أو أن عكسه قد حدث فعلاً فى الماضى:-
1- If she had studied hard last term, she would have passed the exam.
2- They would have won the last match if they had played well.
3- If he had been careful, he might not have made this fatal mistake.
 يستخدم فى المواقف الخياليه فى الماضى:-
1- If I had lived in the Stone Age, I would have been a hunter.
2- If she had found a treasure, she would have built a palace.
 يستخدم أحياناً للتعبير عن الأسف والندم لحدوث شئ فى الماضى:-
* If I hadn't fallen ill, I might have got high marks in the exam.

لاحظ الأتى:-

 لاحظ استخدام might في حالة وجود perhaps
* He had no moralsأخلاق. Perhaps that’s why he cheated everyone.
If he had had morals, he might not have cheated everyone.

 الحالة الثالثة تعبر عن مواقف مستحيلة لأنها لم تحدث
* She was stingyبخيل . She didn't give money to charity.
If she hadn’t been stingy, she would have given money to charity.

 يمكن أن تأتي Had بدلا من if :
* If he had followed the instructions, the machine wouldn't have stopped. (Had……)
Had he followed the instructions, the machine wouldn't have stopped.

 يمكن أن تأتي if في منتصف الجملة في جميع الحالات:
* He didn’t travel to New York, so he didn’t see the Statue of Liberty. (He would…)
He would have seen the Statue of Liberty if he had travelled to New York.

 عند استخدام so أو because تعود جملة if إلى أصلها:
* If he had been honest, he wouldn't have lied to her. (because)
He lied to her because he wasn’t honest.

 بدلا من If في الحالة الثالثة نستخدم:

* But for his help, I would have failed. (If it…)
If it hadn’t been for his help, I would have failed.

 لاحظ استخدام in case of بدلا من if
In case of + n. / (v+ing)

* If he arrives tomorrow, we’ll meet him.
In case of his arrival tomorrow, we’ll meet him.
In case of his arriving tomorrow, we’ll meet him.

•لاحظ أن unless تنطبق عليها نفس حالات if
Unless = If…not

* This food tastes bad. There is too much salt in it. (If../ Unless…)
If there wasn't / weren't too much salt in this food, it wouldn't taste bad.
Unless there was / were too much salt in this food, it wouldn't taste bad.

} الفرق بين الحاله الثانيه والثالثه {
(2) If you planned things properly, you wouldn't get into a mess.
= You don't plan.

(3) If you had planned things properly, you wouldn't have got into a mess.
= You didn't plan.

{If (1), (2) OR (3)}
Two players are talking together before an important match today:
*Player 1: If we win today, we will go to the top of our group.
*Player 2: I know, but Flavio is injured again. If he was in the team, I would feel more confident.

After the match:
* Player 1: I can't believe. We lost.
* Player 2: I told you. If Flavio had played, we would have won.
= We would have lost.

If OR When
1- If you hear any news, can you ring me immediately?
= You might hear some news.
2- When you hear some news. Can you ring me immediately?
= You will hear some news.

We use If for something that we think might happen.
We use When for something that we know will happen.

In case OR If
We use in case to talk about doing something to avoid possible problems later on.

1- I will bring in the washing if it rains.
= I will bring it at the time it starts raining.
2- I will bring in the washing in case it rains.
= I will bring it now because it might rain later.

• Exercises on Vocabulary and Language Notes:
1- Choose the correct answer:
1. My (belief – concept – ambition – relation) is to become a surgeon.
2. When he heard the news, he was (willing – silent – noisy – talking). He said nothing.
3. I didn't understand the film on TV last night. It was completely (meaningful –mean
meaningless – thoughtless) to me.
4. He's quite a good player, but his (include – inclusion- closure – illusion) in th
national team is a surprise.
5. It's a traditional song, but its message is very modern. Its words are still (meaningless –
meaningful- lifeless – hopeless) today.
6. The footballer (regretted – affected – enjoyed – angered) his mistake when the other
team scored a goal.
7. The head teacher makes an (advertisement - announcement – advert – accomplishment)
when there is something important to know about in the school.
8. The children (supported – complained - chatted – expanded) excitedly when they heard
the good news.
9. The teacher (informed – reformed – deformed – exploded) the class that they had all
passed the exam.
10.They called a (pacific - paramedic – patriotic – public) when they saw that one of the passengers was ill.
11. I'm not a scientist, so these numbers are (meaningless – meaningful – meaning – mean) . | don't understand them.
12. The book is full of very useful (information – reclamation – distribution – registration).
13. The driver said the accident was very (regretful – readable – reliable - regrettable).
14. The politician said she had an important (adjustment – amazement – announcement – armament).
15. We (detect – regret – enjoy – defect) to tell you that the journey will be delayed.
16. The passengers were (chatting – cheating – checking – stealing), reading or listening to music.
17. A (barometer – thermometer – parasitic – paramedic) is someone who is trained to help people who are ill or injured but is not a doctor or nurse.
18. A/An (department – advertisement – announcement – apartment) is an important official statement about something that has happened or will happen.
19. Could you please (remember – arrange – revise – remind) me of your birthday?
20. She's looking forward to (see – seeing – being seen – saw) the Pyramids.

تمارين من موقع الوزارة على القواعد
1. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.
1. If I _____ hard, I will become really good at playing basketball.
a. will practise b. would practise c. practise d. practised
2. If my brother had a lot of money he _____ it all on music and clothes.
a. would spend b. will spend c. would have spent d. spends
3. If my mother _____ met my father, I would not have been born!
a. would not b. hadn't c. didn't d. will not
4. Ehab _____ fishing if he finishes all his work before the weekend.
a. will go b. had gone c. would go d. is going
5. Even if you _____ no money, you can still have some fun.
a. would have b. are having c. had d. have
6. If I _____ I will become very fat.
a. wouldn't exercise b. won't exercise c. don't exercise d. hadn't exercised
7. Ali would act in the school play if he _____ good at acting.
a. had been b. would be c. will be d. were
8. If I need advice about my life, I usually _____ to my mother.
a. would talk b. will talk c. had talked d. talk

2. Rewrite the sentences to give the same meaning.
1. The weather will probably be good tomorrow. Then we will go on holiday. (If)

2. When blue is added to yellow, it makes green. (If you)

3. I wasn’t born a boy, so I can wear dresses. (If I)

4. I don’t have much time so I don’t do many sports. (If)

5. Give me some money and I will buy some chocolate. (If you).

3 Read the paragraph. Underline the correct words in parentheses.
I want to learn to speak English really well. If someone speaks English well, they (have – will have – would have) a better chance to find a job or go to university. If I (will pass - passed – pass) all my exams in English, I will look for a job in tourism or at an international company.But I need to practise a lot and do my homework regularly. Unfortunately, I did not study hard last year and so now I am taking extra classes. If I had studied more last year, I (will not - would not – do not) have needed to take extra classes this year. I think that people who speak more than two languages have an even better chance to find a job or study at university. If I (will have - would have – had) more time and money, I would like to study French as well.

4 Find the mistakes and correct them.
I would like to be a top football player. If I am a top football player, I would be very famous and have a lot of money, and everyone would love me. I will be on television all the time and play at lots of different stadiums and in different countries — this would be fantastic! I love sport and I love to play football, so I am thinking about trying to join the national team when I am older. It is difficult because so many people want to be top football players, but if I find the chance, I would take it. But because top football players are famous they cannot do normal things like normal people. If a top football player will walk down the street, everyone runs to him and asked him for his signature. So maybe I do not really want to become a top football player. But it is nice to dream about what it is going to be like!

4. Match the phrases, then rewrite each sentence below.

A B
1. If there is a traffic jam a. I will watch it.
2. When you add hot water to ice b. he would have gone to play tennis.
3. If he were less tired c. it melts.
4. If he had been less tired d. I would not have gone.
5. If you hadn't told me about the film e. he would go to play tennis.
f. we will be late.
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الوحدة 13 لغة انجليزية 2ث شرح روووووووعه Empty
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