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تاريخ التسجيل : 23/10/2009
|موضوع: 1Unit 15: Phobias الأحد 8 أبريل 2012 - 6:18|| |
1Unit 15: Phobias
phobia خوف مرضى أو جنونى lie يكذب / ينام / يقع (للمكان)
fear خوف / يخاف dusty مترب
dizzy دائخ / يشعر بدوار dust تراب
illness مرض affect يؤثر على
spiders عناكب irrational غير مبرر / غير منطقى
worry القلق / يقلق therapist طبيب نفسى
control تحكم / سيطرة / يتحكم فى virtual افتراضي / شبه واقعى
panic هلع / ذعر / يشعر بالذعر treatment علاج
avoid يتجنب / يتحاشى treat يعالج
unreasonable غير منطقى / لا مبرر له extreme زائد / اضافى
balance توازن height ارتفاع
anxiety قلق bridge كوبرى
behave يتصرف / يسلك remain يبقى / يظل
sensibly بحكمة relax يسترخى
doll عروسة / لعبة دمية reasonable منطقى / معقول
purpose غرض / هدف
small spaces أماكن صغيرة combination مجمل / مجموع
open spaces أماكن مفتوحة conditions ظروف / شروط
poisonous سام exist يوجد
bite / bit / bitten يلدغ / يقرص / يقضم existence وجود
cupboard دولاب المطبخ therapy علاج نفسى
tunnel نفق mental illness مرض عقلى
calm هادئ physical illness مرض جسدى
lift أسانسير / مصعد image صورة
stairs سلالم society مجتمع
sports ground أرض الملعب nervous عصبى
nightmare كابوس appointment موعد / ميعاد
overcrowded مزدحم shop assistant بائع فى محل
toy لعبة criminal مجرم
relaxed مسترخى crime جريمة
clear headed هادئ / صافى الذهن arrest يقبض على
dark مظلم / ظلام customer زبون
light نور / منير pilot طيار
injure يصيب / يجرح passengers ركاب
commonly أكثر شيوعا confident واثق
exam phobia خوف من الامتحان methods طرق
disappoint يحبط details تفاصيل
disappointment إحباط / خيبة أمل figures أرقام
questionnaire استبيان silence صمت / سكون
last يستمر land يهبط
confidence ثقة motivate يحفز / يدفع الى
Idioms & Expressions
afraid of خائف من go up يصعد
frightened of مرعوب من get away يهرب / يبتعد
grow up يكبر / ينمو come from يأتى من / ينشأ من
turn (spin) round يدور حول / يلف حول worry about يقلق من
get over يتغلب على / يشفى من look like يشبه
recover from يشفى من fall off his bicycle يقع من على دراجته
fear of خوف من get off ينزل من (وسيلة مواصلات)
feeling of شعور بـ / احساس بـ get on يركب
make sure يتأكد break down يتعطل / ينهار عصبياً
have a phobia about لديه خوف من fall asleep يغلبه النوم
be born with مولود بـ in control of مسيطر على
take off يخلع الملابس / تقلع الطائرة / يزيل get close to يقترب من
dream about يحلم بـ pick … up يلتقط
turn into يتحول الى
It doesn't matter لا يهم do a questionnaire يجرى استبيان
suffer from يعانى من
get away from يبتعد عن / يهرب من go (get) into يدخل / يلتحق بـ
on the underground بالمترو fail an exam يفشل فى الامتحان
full of مملوء بـ fly through clouds يسافر عبر السحب
on the first floor فى الطابق الأول run away from يهرب من
Word الكلمة Opposite العكس
panic يخاف / يفزع stay calm يبقى هادئا
get over an illness يشفى من مرض catch an illness يصاب بمرض
dizzy يشعر بدوار clear headed صافى الذهن
frightened خائف relaxed هادئ / مسترخى
dark ظلام light ضوء / نور
take control يتحكم lose control يفقد السيطرة
Fear: the feeling you get when you are afraid or worried that something bad will happen. خوف (طبيعى)
phobia: a strong, unreasonable fear of something. خوف مرضى أو جنونى
dizzy: feeling that you are losing your balance, for example, because you have been spinning round or you are ill. دائخ / يشعر بدوار
get over: feel better after a bad experience, or after being ill
يتحسن / يشفى من
panic: a sudden strong feeling of fear or anxiety that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly. هلع / ذعر / يشعر بالذعر
avoid: make sure that something bad does not happen. يتجنب / يتحاشى
affect: cause a change in someone or something, or to change the situation they are in. يؤثر على
irrational: not reasonable. غير منطقى / لا عقلانى
session: a period of time used for a particular purpose. جلسة
situation: the combination of all the things that are happening and all the conditions that exist at a particular time and place. موقف
Therapist: someone whose job is to do a particular type of therapy (treatment of a mental or physical illness) طبيب نفسى
virtual: when a computer makes you feel as though you are in a real situation.
affect / effect:
affect: (v) have an effect on يؤثر على
- The fire affected both buildings badly.
effect: (noun) تأثير
- The fire had a bad effect on both buildings.
cause / reason:
cause of: سبب
- The police are still trying to find the cause of the fire.
reason for + noun / v. + ing: سبب
- I don't know the reason for his absence.
reason why + فاعل + فعل ……….: سبب
- I don't know the reason why he is absent.
used to / be used to:
used to + inf. : كان معتادا على (تستخدم للتعبير عن عادة فى الماضى)
- He was in the habit of smoking when he was young. (used to)
He used to smoke when he was young.
am/is/are + used to + v. + ing:
يعتاد على ( تستخدم للتعبير عن عادة مستمرة)
- He usually drinks coffee after lunch. (is used to)
He is used to drinking coffee after lunch.
lose / miss:
- The team played well, but lost the game.
- He lost a lot of money at races.
miss: يفتقد (شخص / مكان) / يفوته (وسيلة مواصلات)
- I miss my old friends very much.
- He missed the 9:30 train.
remember / remind:
remind: يذكر (يتذكر بواسطة شخص)
- Remind me to post the letter.
- He reminds me of his father.
remember: يتذكر من تلقاء نفسه
- She remembered to take medicine.
like يحب / hate يكره + v. + ing:
- I like playing chess. - I hate watching terror films.
make + مفعول + مصدر أو صفة : يجعل
- The bad weather made us stay at home.
- His success made his family happy.
without + v. + ing: بدون
- He left without saying goodbye.
It's possible for …… to + مصدر : من الممكن لـ ...... أن
- It's possible for you to pay with a credit card.
Speaker 1: I used to have a phobia about spiders. My father was frightened of spiders, so my phobia must have come from him. I remember him telling me that many spiders are poisonous. I always thought that any spider I saw was going to bite me, so I avoided all of the places where I might find a spider. I hated opening cupboards because I might have found a spider in it. And I never visited old buildings that might have been their home.
Speaker 2: My mother says I loved dolls until I was about five, so fear of dolls can't have been a phobia I was born with. It just happened slowly, like an illness. When I was seven, one of my aunts tried to help me get over this fear. She brought me an old doll, then took off its hair to show me that it wasn't a real person. Of course this just made everything worse. For weeks after I had bad dreams about dolls. That was when my fear turned into a real phobia. Now, if I see a doll, I feel ill and dizzy. I must get away from it.
Speaker 3: When I was fifteen, I was in London and I had to travel on the underground. The train was full of people. Everyone was talking or reading their newspapers, then the train stopped in a tunnel. Most people stayed quite calm, but I began to panic. I ran up and down the train crying and shouting. After about five minutes, the train started moving again, and I got out at the next station. Since then I haven't travelled on the underground. I don't like being in very small places — that must be why I have a phobia about lifts, too. In my last job I worked on the fourteenth floor of an office building, but I went up by the stairs, not the lift. I sometimes took the lift just to show myself that I could do it, but I didn't enjoy it.
Speaker 4: Going to the park and other open places can be terrible for me. I have a very strange feeling when I go to these places. The small streets near my home and small gardens aren't a problem, but a trip to a big open space like a park or a sports ground can be a nightmare. I hear my own voice saying, "I must get away!" I'm really afraid of open spaces.
Treatments for phobias
Phobias are not just extreme fears-they are irrational fears. They can affect people's lives and make them frightened to do things which most people do without thinking. For example, if you have a fear of heights, you may drive 40 kilometres to avoid a high bridge.
The usual treatment is to slowly show the person who has the phobia what they fear. For example, a person with a spider phobia first thinks about a spider, then looks at photographs of spiders,' and finally looks at a real spider. The therapist who is giving the treatment remains calm and helps the patient to relax. The person with the phobia feels in control of the situation and, because of this, they do not panic. After a few sessions, they realise that the thing they are afraid of cannot hurt them.
In another treatment, the therapist gets close to the spider and picks it up without showing any fear. This helps the patient to see that he or she has nothing to fear.
Some phobias can be treated in a few sessions with the therapist. Some people with phobias need medicine to help them relax before treatment. Treatment can be done in groups where people with the same phobia are helped together. It is also possible to have treatment from a computer program, where the patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing he or she fears.
It does not matter how clever you are or how hard you work, you have probably felt worried before an exam at some time in the past. Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer from exam phobia. Some people are so frightened of an exam they are going to take that they cannot remember important information when they are in the exam room. These students will probably get lower marks. Some students cannot even go into the exam room, and of course, they fail.
There are different reasons for this phobia. Exams are extremely important for all students. They are afraid of failing, because if they fail they will not get into a good university or find a good job. Also, students do not want to disappoint their parents. So what can students do if they suffer from exam phobia?
Here is some advice from a teacher:
• Get lots of sleep. If you are tired, you will probably feel more worried.
• Eat healthy food. Lots of sweets and biscuits will not make you feel good.
• Believe in yourself. You must believe that you can succeed.
Remember to do your best and you will pass the test.
Questions & answers
1- How is a phobia different from a fear?
- A phobia is stronger than a fear, and is irrational.
2- How can phobias affect people's lives?
- They can make them frightened to do things which most people do without thinking.
3- What kinds of things are people commonly afraid of?
- Heights, spiders, insects, mice, snakes, flying, the dark, etc.
4- What wouldn't the person with a fear of height do?
- He wouldn't climb a tall tree or a mountain.
5- Why do you think a lot of people are afraid of spiders, but not of butterflies?
- Because butterflies are beautiful, but spiders are ugly.
6- What is the best treatment for people with phobias?
- The best treatment is to slowly show the person who has the phobia what they fear.
- Some people with phobias need medicine.
- It is also possible to have treatment from a computer program, where the patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing he or she fears.
7- Why is it important for the patients with phobias to relax?
- The treatment will not work if patients panic.
8- Why do some phobias need medicine?
- To help them relax before treatment.
9- Why do you think it takes a few sessions for patients to realise they do not need to be afraid?
- It takes time to build up their confidence in the therapist and the methods.
10- How can a computer programme used in treating some phobias ?
- The patient is put into a virtual situation with the thing they fear .
11- Can being afraid of exams sometimes be useful? Why? Why not?
- Yes, it motivates يحفز / يدفع us to study.
12- How can a student's future change if they fail an exam?
- Students might not get into the university they want to go to. They might not get the job they want to do.
13- Why is it important to sleep well before an exam?
- You will probably worry more if you are tired.
14- What sort of information do you think students forget easily?
- They may forget detailed facts and figures that they have learnt but
which they do not understand.
15- Why do some students not like exam rooms?
- Exam rooms can be very large and full of hundreds of students.
- Students sometimes find the silence in exam rooms difficult or strange.
16- What kind of food and drink must students have before an exam?
- Students must eat healthy food such as fish, fruit and vegetables. They must drink lots of water or fresh juice.
Choose the correct answer:
1- When I was younger, I often dreamt (about-from-of-with) tunnels.
2- Some children are frightened (about-from-of-with) the dark.
3- I don't like travelling on trains which are full (about-from-of-with) people.
4- My fear (about-from-of-with) parties came (about-from-of-with) my mother.
5- I've always been afraid (about-from-of-with) birds.
6- My brother was born (about-from-of-with) a fear (about-from-of-with) cats.
7- If you turn round many times, you may feel (dizzy-lazy-crazy-happy).
8- If you get (on-over-off-out) an illness, you recover from it.
9- If you worry so much that you lose control, you (panic-play-cry-shout).
10- If you (like-run-avoid-wait) something, you try not to see it, do it or go to it.
11- If you have a phobia, you feel very (fright-frightening-frighten-frightened) of something.
12- A (ball-doll-date-dart) is a toy which looks like a baby or a small person.
13- People who are frightened (at-about-from-of) open spaces do not like large spaces.
14- I don't like (be-being-was-were) in very small places.
15- I hate (open-to open-opens-opening) cupboards because I may find a spider in them.
16- If you have a fear of (heights-lights-sights-fights), you may drive 40 kilometres to avoid a high bridge.
17- We went on (a tour-an expedition-a voyage-flight) into the Amazon forest.
18- When I heard the news, I was (appointed-disappointed-appointment- disappointment).
19- The plane took (up – off – after – in) at seven in the morning.
20- My brother was born (with – of – from – at) a fear of cats.
21- Silence, the court is in (session – season – hold – attend).
22- She (remembered – reminded – witness – watched) to pay the bill.
23- They (made – did – had – arranged) a questionnaire to choose their leader.
24- What happened made my fear turn (over-up-into-on) a real phobia.
25- Phobias can (affect-effect-effective-affection) people's lives.
26- Some phobias can be treated in a few (sessions-gatherings-sections-seasons) with the therapist.
27- It is also possible (have-having-to have-had) treatment from a computer programme.
28- The patient is put into a (virtual-irrational-national-local) situation with the thing he or she fears.
29- Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer (of-with-at-from) exam phobia.
30- If you do your best, you will (succeed-cross-fail-pass) the test.
31- Someone with a fear of (spiders-exams-heights-dolls) would not climb a tall tree or a mountain.
32- Phobias are (irrational-rational-national-international) fears: there is no reason for the person to be so afraid.
33- The (therapy-therapist-pilot-architect) shows the patient that the situation they fear will not hurt them.
34- A police officer arrests (criminals-crimes-pilots-passengers) in society.
35- A shop assistant sells and serves things to (costumes-customers-waiters-customs) in shops.
Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- Irrational phobias can affect people's lives. (effect)
2- I don't know the reason for his failure. (the reason why)
3- It is not strange for Hany to stay at home alone. (is used to)
4- Ayman can study medicine abroad. (possible)
Modals pf Possibility
Present: must / can't / might + inf.
Example The speaker thinks …….
- He must be English-he speaks English well. - He is definitely English because he speaks English well.
- He can't be Egyptian-he doesn't speak Arabic. - He is definitely not English.
- He might be French, but he is probably Italian. - It is possible that he is French.
Past: must / can't / might + have + pp
Example The speaker thinks …….
- I'm frightened of snakes. A snake must have frightened me when I was a child. - A snake definitely frightened me when I was a child.
- It's only 4 o'clock. The match can't have finished already. - The match definitely hasn't finished. (It's too early.)
- Azza wasn't at school yesterday. She might have had a doctor's appointment موعد. - It is possible that Azza had a doctor's appointment.
Choose the correct answer:
1- The telephone rang, but I didn't hear it. I (can't have been-would have been-must have been-might have been) asleep.
2- You've only been in the laboratory for half an hour. You (can't have finished-must have finished-would have finished-finished) your experiment already.
3- Emad didn't take his keys with him. He (could have seen-could see-might see-can't have seen) them on the table.
4- This (may-can't-must-could) be his car. He's too poor to afford such an expensive car.
5- David isn't here. He (must-can-ought-should) have gone home to study for the test tomorrow.
6- Ahmed is a professor of Chemistry. He must (be-have been-have-had been) very clever at school.
7- Where is David? He (must be-can’t be-needn’t be-mustn’t be) at school. Classes begin at 8.
8- I'm absolutely sure! They (must arrive-could arrive-should have arrived-must have arrived) yesterday, I saw their ticket.
9- You (can’t be-must be-should be-would be) joking. I can’t possibly lend you that sum of money.
10- He looks happy. He (must-can't-may-might) have passed the exams.
Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- I'm certain that he is a great painter. (must)
2- I'm sure that he didn't fail the exam. (can't)
3- That house was almost certainly built a few years ago. (must)
4- It is not possible that he caught the bus. (couldn't)
5- There is a remote possibility that the operation will not work. (might)
6- I suppose he is the new English teacher. (must)
7- I’m sure that he is at home. (must)
8- I’m sure he isn’t at home. (can’t)
9- I’m sure he was ill. (must)
10- I’m sure he didn’t rob the bank. (can’t)
11- Perhaps he will buy a car. (may)
12- I’m not sure that he bought a car. (might)
13- There’s a chance they’ll arrest him if he tries to leave the country.(might)
14- They were late. Perhaps they missed the nine o’clock train. (may)
15- Perhaps he was ill yesterday. (may)
16- I'm sure that Ahmed isn't over forty. ( can't )
17- I think he is definitely a doctor. ( must )
18- I think he was ill. ( must )
19- I don't think he will come back. ( might )
20- I suppose it's possible the thief had a key. ( might )
21- It was impossible that he didn't hear the news. ( He )
22- I'm sure that Ahmed won the match yesterday. ( must )
23- I'm sure he has gone to bed because all lights are off. (must)
24- I believe he definitely passed the driving test. (must)
25- I'm sure he didn't come to the party. (can't have)
26- I'm sure Alaa hasn't finished his homework. He only started it five minutes ago. (Alaa can't)
A) Language Functions
1- Finish the following dialogue between Samy and Hany who was absent from school yesterday.
Samy: Why were you absent yesterday?
Samy: ………… ?
Hany : Yes, I went to the doctor.
Hany: To take some pills and take rest for a week.
Samy: How are you now?
2- Write what you would say in each of the following situations:
1- You meet a foreigner who asks you to tell him the way to the citadel.
2- You have a phobia of spiders. A friend asks you when it began
3- Your friend asks you about the best treatment for people with phobias.
4- Your teacher asks you what difference is there between a phobia and a fear
B) Vocabulary and Structure
3- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- When he looks down from a high building, he feels ………………….
a) dizzy b) irrational c) virtual d) luxury
2- I'm sorry to hear you're ill. I hope you get ……………. it soon.
a) better b) over c) on d) off
3- When she was young, she had a ……………… of the dark.
a) session b) panic c) frightened d) fear
4- A ………………… helps patients with their treatment.
a) pilot b) therapist c) phobia d) criminal
5- Eating the right food …………………… health well.
a) affects b) effect c) effective d) affection
6- I’m not sure. He …………………….. have taken the book.
a) will b) must c) may d) should
7- I can’t find my eyeglasses here. I ……………………… left them at home.
a) should have b) will have c) would have d) must have
8- When he was young, he ………………… have a phobia about spiders.
a) uses to b) used to c) is used to d) used
9- She got the full mark on her exams. She …………… clever.
a) must be b) must have c) must have had d) had
10- It ……………….. a bird. You must be mistaken
a) must be b) can't be c) may be d) might be
4- Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- Tarek's really hungry. He probably didn't have enough breakfast. (can't)
2- It's possible the thief stole the money. (might)
3- The house was certainly built before 2000. (must)
4- I phoned Aly but he didn’t answer. I think he wasn’t at home. (can't have)
5- Read the text below, then write the word which best fits each space:
You have probably felt worried before an exam at some time in the past. Experts believe that about 50 percent of all students suffer from exam (1)…………. Some people are so frightened of an (2)………….. they are going to take that they cannot remember important information when they are in the exam (3)…………. There are different (4) ………………... for this phobia. Exams are extremely important for all students. They are (5)……………… of failing, because if they fail they will not get into a good university or (6) ……………… a good job.
C) Read Comprehension and Set Books
6- Read the following passage , then answer the questions:
Elizabeth Blackwell was born in England in 1821, and emigrated هاجرت to New York city when she was ten years old. One day she decided that she wanted to become a doctor. That was nearly impossible for a woman in the middle of the nineteenth century. After writing many letters seeking تبحث عن admission القبول to medical schools, she was finally accepted by a doctor in Philadelphia. So determined مصممة was she that she taught at school and gave music lessons to earn money for her tuition تعليم.
In 1849, after graduation التخرج from medical school, she decided to further her education in Paris. She wanted to be a surgeon, but a serious eye infection forced her to give up the idea.
Upon returning to the United States, she found it difficult to start her own practice تدريب / ممارسة because she was a woman. By 1857 Elizabeth and her sister, also a doctor, along with بالاضافة الى another female doctor, managed to open a new hospital, the first for women and children. Besides بالاضافة الى being the first female physician طبيب and founding تأسيس her own hospital, she also established أسست the first medical school for women.
A) Answer the following questions:
1- How did Elizabeth Blackwell earn money for her tuition?
2- How old was Elizabeth when she graduated from medical school?
3- Why couldn’t Elizabeth realize her dream of becoming a surgeon?
4- What are the “firsts” in the life of Elizabeth Blackwell?
B) Choose the correct answer:
1- Elizabeth Blackwell emigrated to New York City in ……………………. .
a) 1821 b) 1831
2- The main obstacle عائق that almost destroyed Elizabeth’s chances for becoming a doctor was that ………………………. .
a) she was a woman
b) she wrote too many letters
c) she couldn’t graduate from medical school
d) she couldn’t establish her hospital.
3- Elizabeth Blackwell went to a medical school in ……………………… .
a) Paris b) New York
c) England d) Philadelphia
7- Answer Only Four (4) of the following questions:
1- What kinds of things are people commonly afraid of?
2- How is a phobia different from a fear?
3- Why do some students not like exam rooms?
4- Why do you think a lot of people are afraid of spiders, but not of butterflies?
5- What sort of information do you think students forget easily?
6- Why do you think it takes a few sessions for patients to realise they do not need to be afraid?
D) The Novel
A) Answer the following questions:
1- Mr Benting thought that the job he was offered in 1921 sounded boring, so why did he accept it?
2- What happens to Van Lutjens in the end?
3- Why did Van Lutjens take the diamonds to New York?
4- What was Benting's decision when the box fell into the sea?
B) Read the following quotation, then answer the questions:
"I must go down and look at my children."
1- Who says this to whom?
2- Who or what are these 'children'?
3- Where will the man go down to look at the children?
9- Write a paragraph of seven (7) sentences about:
"Someone that you like"
10- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- Egypt has made great progress in different fields of industry, education and modern technology.
2- The near future will witness great development in space tourism which will attract a lot of people.
B) Translate into English:
تبذل الدولة ما بوسعها لتطوير التعليم و انشاء المزيد من المدارس و الجامعات.
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عدد المساهمات : 18213
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تاريخ التسجيل : 04/09/2009
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تاريخ التسجيل : 27/04/2012
|موضوع: رد: 1Unit 15: Phobias الجمعة 27 أبريل 2012 - 0:52|| |