الساعة الآن بتوقيت شنواى :
عدد المساهمات : 456
نقاط : 1203
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/10/2009
|موضوع: Unit 14 Jules Verne الأحد 8 أبريل 2012 - 6:17|| |
Unit 14 Jules Verne
type نوع sunglasses نظارة شمس
hot air balloon بالون / منطاد butcher جزار
coloured ملون sell / sold / sold يبيع
rubber bag كيس من المطاط café مقهى
toy لعبة kitchen مطبخ
decoration زينة / تزيين mechanic ميكانيكى
transport نقل / مواصلات contain يحتوى على
available متاح / متوافر next door مجاور
exploration استكشاف argument مناقشة
explore يستكشف disagreement خلاف / نزاع / عدم اتفاق
explorer مستكشف agreement اتفاق / اتفاقية / موافقة
unfamiliar غير مألوف criminal مجرم
arrest يقبض على crime جريمة
lawyer محامى railway line خط سكة حديد
law قانون across عبر
court محكمة servant خادم
realize يدرك serve يخدم
notice يلاحظ succeed ينجح
science fiction خيال علمى success النجاح
space travel السفر للفضاء successful ناجح
submarine غواصة kidnap يخطف / يختطف
rocket صاروخ rescue ينقذ / إنقاذ
port ميناء بحرى fuel problems مشاكل الوقود
hide / hid / hidden يخبئ / يختبئ real حقيقى
studies دراسات international date line خط التوقيت العالمى
earn يكسب / يربح hurry يسرع
well-known معروف / مشهور arrival وصول
magazine مجلة illness مرض
death موت traffic jam اختناق المرور
article مقالة / سلعة flu أنفلونزا
novel رواية infected مصاب بالعدوى
poem قصيدة prepare يعد / يجهز
airport مطار master سيد
teenager مراهق slave عبد
robot إنسان آلى congratulate يهنئ
astronaut رائد فضاء chance فرصة
information معلومات route طريق
home town المدينة التى تعيش فيها victims ضحايا
collect يجمع financial help مساعدة مالية
charity مؤسسة خيرية description وصف
earthquake زلزال frightened خائف
Idioms & Expressions
filled with مملوء بـ on TV فى التليفزيون
come out يظهر / يخرج do the homework يحل الواجب
available for متاح لـ / متوافر لـ adapt to يتكيف مع
speak for يتحدث نيابة عن live with يعيش مع
on their journey فى رحلتهم work for يعمل لدى
interested in مهتم بـ at the same time فى نفس الوقت
hear of يسمع عن look for يبحث عن
grow up يكبر save …… from ينقذ ... من
busy with مزدحم بـ get to يصل إلى
leave for يرحل إلى run away يهرب
pay for يدفع ثمن on holiday فى أجازة
earn money يكسب المال on the way فى الطريق
live on يعيش على keep away from يبتعد عن
wait for ينتظر go round يدور / يلف
listen to يستمع إلى take off تقلع (الطائرة)
next to بجوار / بالقرب من come up تظهر
balloon: coloured rubber bag that is filled with air to use as a toy or decoration, or for transport. بالون . منطاد
come out: become available for people to buy. خرجت / ظهرت
exploration: travelling through an unfamiliar area to find out what it is like. إستكشاف
lawyer: Someone who advises people about the law and speaks for them in court. محامى
realise: notice something that you have not noticed or understood before. يدرك
science fiction: books and stories about life in the future. الخيال العلمى
argument: a disagreement between people. جدال
criminal: a person who has done something bad. مجرم
reach: arrive at + مكان صغير = arrive in + مكان كبير يصل الى
servant: person who lives with and works for another person. خادم
journey: رحلة طويلة ( برية / جوية )
- His wife accompanied يصطحب him on his journey to America.
voyage: رحلة (بحرية / فضائية)
- During their voyage at sea, a storm blew.
on time / in time:
on time: punctual فى الميعاد
- Despite the bad weather, our plane left on time.
in time: not late, early enough. فى الوقت المناسب
- We arrived at the airport in time to eat before the plane lefty.
during / while:
during + v. + ing / noun اسم : خلال
- I woke up several times during the night.
while + v. + ing / فاعل + was / were + v. + ing: أثناء
- I heard him come in while we were having dinner.
- I heard him come in while having dinner.
manage / succeed:
manage + to + مصدر : يتمكن من
succeed in + v. + ing: ينجح فى
- He managed to get the driving test. (succeeded)
- He succeeded in getting the driving test.
by / on / in + وسيلة مواصلات:
by + وسيلة مواصلات :
by ( plane – train – ship – boat – car – taxi – elephant – bus.
لكن نقول on foot / on horseback
on + أداة أو صفة ملكية + وسيلة مواصلات:
on (a ship – a plane – the bus – the train – my bicycle)
لكن نقول in a car / in my car / in a taxi
accept / agree:
accept: (an invitation / an offer / an apology / a present / a bribe / advice)
يقبل (دعوة / عرض / اعتذار / هدية / رشوة / نصيحة)
- She accepted his invitation to dance.
agree: يوافق ( لا يليه مفعول به )
- He suggested going to the club but no one agreed.
agree to: (a plan / a suggestion / an idea)(خطة / اقتراح / فكرة) يوافق على
- They finally agreed to our offer.
agree with: يتفق مع (شخص)
- I objected يعترض and they agreed with me.
agree on: يتفق على
- They are still trying to agree on a date for the wedding.
spend + time +( v – ing ): يقضى وقت
- Jules Verne spent a lot of his time writing stories.
Stop + v. + ing: يمنع
- He stopped paying for his son's studies and told him he had to find a job
avoid + v. + ing: يتجنب
- He avoids meeting bad people.
Verbs and Nouns
Catch a ball يمسك الكرة / يصد Catch a criminal يقبض على المجرم
Catch a bus يلحق الأتوبيس Catch a disease يصاب بمرض
Catch a train يلحق القطار Catch cold يصاب بالبرد
Catch a flight يلحق الطائرة Catch flue يصاب بالإنفلونزا
Lose a ball يضيع الكرة. هدف Lose a race يضيع السباق
Lose a criminal يفلت المجرم Lose weight يفقد وزن . يخس
Lose a match يضيع مبارة Lose appetite يفقد الشهيـة
Miss a ball Miss a match
Miss a bus Miss a train
Miss a flight Miss a person
You probably don't know much about the writer Jules Verne, but you may have heard of two of his most famous novels: Journey to the Centre of the Earth and Around the World in Eighty Days. Verne wrote stories about air travel, space travel and submarines before planes, rockets or submarines were used. This is why many people call Jules Verne the 'father of science fiction'.
Verne was born in 1828. He grew up in a port called Nantes in northern France. It was always busy with ships coming and going. This may be why Jules became interested in travel and exploration. There is a story that when he was very young, he wanted to travel so much that he hid on a ship as it was leaving Nantes for America.
After he left school, Jules Verne studied to be a lawyer, but spent a lot of his time writing stories about fantastic journeys. His father, who was also a lawyer, realised this, so he stopped paying for his son's studies and told him he had to find a job. His first story, which was called Five Weeks in a Balloon, came out in 1863. After that, he wrote two books every year and earned enough money to live on his writing. His most well-known book, that he wrote in 1873, was Around the World in Eighty Days. It first came out in a magazine.
In 1905, Jules Verne became ill and died. His last novel came out after his death. It was called The Lighthouse at the End of the World.
Questions & answers
1- Name two of Jules Verne's most famous novels.
- Journey to the Centre of the Earth and Around the World in Eighty Days.
2-Why do many people call Jules Verne the father of science fiction ?
- Because he wrote stories about air travel, space travel and submarines before planes, rockets or submarines were used.
3- Why did Jules become interested in travel and exploration?
- Because he grew up in a port called Nantes, a port busy with ships coming and going.
4- What shows that Jules Verne wanted to travel so much when he was very young?
- He hid on a ship as it was leaving Nantes for America.
5- What did Jules Verne do after he left school?
- After he left school, he studied to be a lawyer.
6- Why did Jules Verne's father stop paying for his son's studies?
- Because Jules spent a lot of his time writing stories about journeys.
7- What was Jules Verne's first story called?
- Five Weeks in a Balloon.
8- What did Jules Verne do to earn money to live?
- He wrote two books every year and earned enough money to live.
9- What is Jules Verne's most well-known book?
- His most well-known book is Around the World in Eighty Days.
10- What is Jules Verne's last novel?
- The Lighthouse at the End of the World.
11- When did Jules Verne's last novel come out?
- His last novel came out after his death.
Reading & Critical Thinking
Around the World in Eighty Days
The story begins in a London club on October 2, 1872. Phileas Fogg, a rich man, has an argument with a friend about how long it would take him to travel round the world. Fogg's friend does not believe that Fogg can finish the journey in 80 days. If he succeeds, Fogg will win £20,000.
Fogg leaves London, with his servant Passepartout, at 8.45 pm on October 2. They will have to return at the same time on December 21. After seven days, they reach Suez, where they meet a man called Fix. Fix is a policeman who thinks that Fogg is the criminal he is looking for. The three men travel to Bombay by ship, then to Calcutta by train. Unfortunately, the railway line is not finished and they need to travel part of the way by elephant. On their journey, they save a young woman from death. She is called Aouda and she goes with them on their journey. From Calcutta, they travel by ship to Hong Kong, then across the Pacific to San Francisco.
In San Francisco, Fogg, Passepartout, Fix and ; Aouda catch the train to New York, but during this journey Passepartout is kidnapped. Fogg rescues his servant, but they get to New York late and miss their boat to Liverpool. After fuel problems, the next boat finally reaches Britain.
As Soon as they arrive, Fix arrests Fogg. He quickly realises that Fogg is not the real criminal, but by now they have missed their train to London, lost a day and so lost the money. However, Passepartout discovers that it is December 20, not December 21. Because they had travelled east, they had crossed the International Date Line and saved a day! Fogg Passepartout hurry to the club and arrive in time to win the £ 20,000.
Questions & answers
1- Where did the story begin?
- The story began in a London club.
2- In what year does the story begin?
- In 1872
3- Where does Fogg begin and end his journey in "Around the World in Eighty Days"?
4- Why do you think Fogg has the time to spend travelling for 80 days?
- Because he is a very rich man who does not need to work.
5- Why does Phileas Fogg's friend think fogg cannot travel round the world in 80 days?
- He thinks it will be impossible to do it so quickly, because things may go wrong and transport was slow then.
6- Would you like to travel around the world as fast as possible? How would you travel?
- Yes, I would. By air.
7- How much will Fogg win if he succeeds?
- If Fogg succeeds, he will win £20,000.
8- Why did Fogg and his friends have to travel by elephant in India?
- Because the railway line was not finished.
9- What do you think Fogg's servant does on the journey?
- He carries things, looks after Fogg's clothes and prepares his food, books tickets etc.
10- How do you think Fogg and Passepartout prepared for their journey?
- I think they prepared food, drink and arranged for means of transport.
11- What do you think Fogg's friend says to him when he arrives back in London after 80 days?
- He congratulates him.
12- Why do you think Fogg decided to try to go round the world in eighty days?
- He wanted the challenge and excitement. Perhaps he needed something to fill his free time.
13- If you had the chance to travel round the world, which route would you choose?
- Land route.
14- What would you most look forward to seeing on this journey?
- Sights, parks, museums and historical places.
15- Many people use journeys like these to collect money for charity. Which charity would you collect money for? Why?
- Building hospitals to cure chronic مزمن diseases like cancer, caring of orphans and homeless to relieve يخفف their pains and suffering معاناة to help them lead a normal life.
16- What did Fix think of Fogg?
- The criminal that he was looking for.
17- What did Fogg and Passepartout lose in Britain?
They lost a day and so lost the money.
18-Why did Passepartout discover that it was December 20, not December 21?
- Because they travelled east and crossed the International Date Line and saved a day.
19- When did Aouda go with Fogg and Passepartout on their journey?
- After they saved her from death.
20- What do Fogg and Passpartout miss in New York?
- They miss their boat to Liverpool.
21- What two things do they lose in Britain?
- They lose a day and so lose the money.
Choose the correct answer:
1- The earliest type of air travel was the hot air (balloon-saloon-plane-ship).
2- Hemingway's novel A Farewell to Arms came (in-over-with-out) in 1929.
3- In 1492, Christopher Columbus left Italy on a journey of (discovery-invention-exploration-expectation).
4- After he left school, Jules Verne studied law to be a (mayor-lawyer-buyer-seller).
5- Verne spent a lot of his time (write-writing-writes-wrote) stories about fantastic journeys.
6- Jules' father stopped (paying-pays-pay-paid) for his studies.
7- Most science (faction-fiction-fact-factory) books tell stories about life in the future.
8- I've (realized-relaxed-known-reached) that I don't have to go to school today because it's a holiday.
9- When the man was (taken-arrested-killed-injured), he asked to speak to his lawyer.
10- Have you ever heard (at-by-of-with) Jules Verne?
11- Jules Verne grew (in-over-up-at) a port in France.
12- Nantes is a port busy (at-of-about-with) ships coming and going.
13- Jules was interested (in-by-of-at) travel and exploration.
14- Her earned enough money to live (with-on-by-at) his writing.
15- A lawyer speaks (of-on-for-by) people who have been arrested.
16- (On-At-By-While) a journey of exploration, people discover new places.
17- (During-While-When-As) the journey, he was kidnapped.
18- If you don't hurry up, we'll (catch-lose-miss-win) the train.
19- If you don't (catch-lose-miss-win) weight, you won't feel better.
20- I enjoy (listen-to listen-listens-listening) to is my grandfather.
Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- The police managed to get the thief as he was running away. (catch)
2- My illness began at Leila's birthday party. (catch)
3- My taxi had to wait in a traffic jam, so I didn't catch my train. (miss)
4- To run in the race, I must be less heavy. (lose)
5- My football team didn't win their match at the weekend. (lose)
6- My family are on holiday. I wish I could see them, (miss)
7- Everyone at school has flu. I hope I am not infected, (catch)
Who – whom – which – that – whose – where - when
تستخـدم لربـط الجمـل ببعضهـا وتحـل محـل الإسـم أو الضمير المكـرر فى الجملـه الثانيـة .
Who = that
تحـل محـل فاعـل عاقـل وتوضـع بعـد الفاعـل الذى تصفـه ويمكن استخـدام that بدلا منهـا .
Ahmed is my friend. He won the prize. (who)
Ahmed who (that) won the prize is my friend.
That is the man. He helped me
That is the man who (that) helped me.
Who = whom = that
تحـل محـل مفعـول عاقـل و يأتـى بعـدهـا الفاعـل ويمكـن استخـدام that بـدلا منهمـا .
Ahmed is my brother. You met him yesterday. (whom)
Ahmed whom ( who - that ) you met yesterday is my brother.
لاحــظ :ـ يمكـن حـذف ضمـير الوصـل إذا كان يحـل محـل مفعـول .
Ahmed, you met yesterday, is my brother.
That's the man. You are talking about.
That's the man whom / who / that you are talking about.
That's the man you are talking about.
لاحــظ :ـ يبقـى حـرف الجـر كما هـو بعـد الفعـل أو يوضـع قبـل ضميـر الوصـل whom فقـط وليـس who – that .
That's the man about whom you are talking.
which = that
تحـل محـل الفاعـل أو المفعـول غير العاقـل وتوضـع قبل أو بعد الاسم الذى تصفه ويمكن استخدام that بدلا منها .
The books are all mine. They are on the shelf.
The books which (that) are on the shelf are all mine.
I opened the window. It overlooks the garden. (which)
I opened the window which (that) overlooks the garden.
The dog is mad. You killed it.
The dog which (that) you killed is mad.
The dog, you killed is mad.
لاحــظ :ـ حلـت which محـل المفعـول لذلـك يمكـن حذفـها .
He bought a new car. He made an accident with it.
He bought a new car which (that) he made an accident with.
He bought a new car with which he made an accident.
يبقـى حـرف الجـر كمـا هـو بعـد الفعـل أو يستخـدم قبـل ( which ) وليس that .
تستخـدم للملكيـة عاقـل وغيـر عاقـل وتحـل محـل ( 's ) أو صفـة الملكيـة ( .( my , his , her , its , your , their , our
That's the man. His son succeeded. (whose)
That's the man whose son succeeded.
My uncle travelled abroad. We live in his house. (whose)
My uncle in whose house we live travelled abroad.
لاحــظ :ـ يمكـن إستخـدام حـرف الجـر قبلهـا ولا تستخـدم that بـدلا منهـا .
تستخـدم مـع المكـان .
This is the house. We live in it now. (Where)
This is the house where we live.
تستخـدم مـع الزمـن ( الوقـت ) .
It is the month July. We go on holiday. (when)
It's the month July when we go on holiday.
ملحوظة :ـ يمكن حذف who , which عندما تحل محل الفاعل إذا جاء بعدهم v. to be أو مبنى للمجهول ويحذف v.to be .
They boy who was punished yesterday got the worst marks.
The boy, punished yesterday got the worst marks.
The food which was left in the dirty container has turned bad.
The food left in the dirty container, has turned bad.
Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets:-
1- I shouted at a man but he didn't come back again. (The man who)
2- That's the boy. His brother sits next to me. (whose)
3- Ahmed will come on Saturday. I'll be at home on that day. (when)
4- Seven o'clock is when I usually have breakfast. (which)
5- Only clever students can do this exercise. (who)
6- A lot of people spend their summer holiday in Alexandria . (where)
7- I'm writing a letter to my aunt . She lives in France . (who)
8- The computer is a useful machine . It stores a lot of information . (that)
9- That is the factory. I've worked in it for ten years . (where / which)
10- I like Cairo. I live in it . (which)
11- My sister studied in France . She got her PHD from France . (where)
12- A girl in blue jeans is asking for help . (who)
13- This is my study. I spend most of my time reading in it . (where)
14- The flat overlooks the Nile. I want to buy it . (which)
15- There is a woman living next door. She is a doctor . (The woman)
16- Hala goes to school. Her school is modern . (which)
17- The girl with a black hand-bag was punished yesterday. (whose)
18- My uncle is very kind to me. I'm living with him . (with whom)
19- That's the boy. His bicycle was stolen yesterday . (whose)
20- The man is the pilot of the plane . I was talking with him . (whom)
21- Ali is a nice fellow. He lives next door to us . (who)
22- This is the school. I was educated in it . (where)
23- The doctors are very good. They work in this hospital . (Who)
24- The man was annoyed because his flat was robbed . (whose)
Choose the correct answer:
1- Dickens was the writer (which-who-whose-where) wrote Oliver Twist.
2- I visited Alexandria, the city (who-which-where-when) Gamal Abdel Nasser was born.
3- The book about Dickens, (who-whom-whose-which) my friend gave me, is very interesting.
4- They've built a new school next to the house (who-which-where-when) I grew up.
5- Someone (who-which-whose-where) I enjoy listening to is my grandfather.
6- Neil Armstrong was the first man (where-when-who-whose) walked on the moon.
7- Will you lend me the DVD (who-whom-which-when) you bought last week.
9- The girl (which-who-whose-that) mother is ill is crying.
10- This is the house (which-where-whose-that) I spent my childhood.
11- Elba is the island (who-whose-whom-where) Napoleon was exiled.
12- These are the books (that-whom-who-what) give you all the information you need on space.
13- This is the mechanic (which-whose-who-whom) repaired my car.
14- Romeo and Juliet were two lovers (which-whose-who-that) parents hated each other.
15- Summer is the season (when-who-which-where) many people take vacations.
16- Armstrong was the first man (whom-whose-which-who) walked on the moon.
17- We had a river in (which-that-where-what) we could swim.
18- I don’t like people (who-whose-which-what) drive fast cars.
19- July is the month (when-who-which-where) I go on holiday.
20- He met one of his old friends in Tanta (which-that-where-who) he lives.
21- This is the time (which-when-who-that) she usually arrives.
22- When she sees (which-why-what-that) you have done, she will be angry.
A- Language Functions
1- Finish the following dialogue between Rania and her friend Dalia.
Menna : What are you reading?
Ahmed : ……………………………………(1)…………….………….
Menna : 2).........................?
Ahmed :.Jules Verne wrote this story
Menna : Really! I want something about science fiction.
Ahmed : Why do many people call him the father of science fiction?
Menna :............(3)...................................Ahmed : ………(4)….. ?
Menna : No, his father was a lawyer.
2- Write what you would say in each of the following situations:
1- You want to ask your friend if he heard of Jules Verne.
2- A friend thinks that science fiction is rubbish.هراء
3- Your brother asked," What today's science fiction writers write about?"
4 - Your father asked you "Would you like to be a lawyer or a writer?"
B- Vocabulary and Structure
3- Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1- Marconi, ………………., invented the radio, was born in 1874.
a) whom b) whose c) who d) which
2- A ………………….. is someone who has done something wrong.
a) gang b) servant c) lawyer d) criminal
3- I've just ……………… that I forgot my wallet at home.
a) realised b) relaxed c) known d) reached
4- If we …………… the bus at 12.30, we can get the next one at 3 o'clock
a) catch b) leave c) miss d) lose
5- This is the bedroom ……….. I sleep, use my computer and do my homework.
a) where b) which c) when d) there
6- The Old Man and the Sea, ……………… was written by Hemingway, is about an old fisherman.
a) who b) whose c) where d) which
7- Millions of people are waiting for the new book to come ………………. .
a) out b) over c) into d) down
8- On a journey of …………………. , people discover new places.
a) discovery b) exploration c) invention d) expectation
9- ……………… is a kind of travel which uses hot air.
a) Gallon b) Saloon c) Balloon d) Baboon
10- They've built a new school next to the house………..I grew up.
a) who b) which c) where d) when
4- Rewrite the following sentences, using the word(s) in brackets:
1- The police force managed to get the criminal. (catch)
2- William Shakespeare wrote King Lear. He was English. (who)
3- My driver had to wait in a traffic jam, so I didn't catch my plane. (miss)
4- Everyone at school has flu. I hope I am not infected, (catch)
5- Where are the new CDs? You bought them yesterday (which)
5- Read the text below, then write the word which best fits each space:
Fogg and his ……(1)……. left London, After seven days, they …(2)…. Suez, where they met Fix who thought that Fogg was the criminal he was looking …(3)….. The three men travelled to Bombay by ship, then to Calcutta ……(4)…. train. On their journey, they saved a young woman …(5) …. death, but (6)……………. this journey Passepartout was kidnapped.
(C) Reading Comprehension and Set Books
6- Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
One of the results of technology and pollution grown is the increase of water pollution throughout the world. According to a United Nations report the future of all life on earth will be endangered if man does not control contamination of the environment. It is time we realized the full extent of the dangers that face mankind.
For instance, here in Egypt, look at our River Nile. It is strange to see how everything is thrown into it as if it were our litter basket. Instead of keeping it clean and pure, we pollute it. We ourselves, not our enemies, dirty it with our own hands. Some farmers wash themselves, their clothes, their animals, their pots and pans in its water. They even throw away their dead animals, and birds into it. Some people living in cities and towns throw their old tyre and broken bottles and rusty tins into it. Factories throw their waste chemicals and garbage. In this way the Nile water gets poisoned, kills fish, poisons land, weakens crops and destroys health.
So it would be foolish to shut our eyes to the dangers of the pollution that man causes to the very thing on which his life depends. Please keep our Nile clean.
A- Answer the following questions:
1- In what way has technology led to the increase of water pollution?
2- How do people in the countryside dirty the Nile?
3- Why does the writer describe the people who pollute the Nile as “enemies”?
4- What are main ideas in this passage?
B)choose the correct answer from a,b,c,d:
5. Contamination mean ………… .
a- full extent` b- realize c- pollution d- environment
6. Technology led to ………… of the Nile.
a- pollution b- dangers c- poison d- growth of population
7. Pollution makes our crops ………… .
a- weakens b- destroyed c- weak d- poisoned
7- Answer only Four (4) of the following questions:
1- Why does phileas Fogg's friend think that he can't travel around the world in eighty days?
2- Why do you think Fogg decided to try to go round the world in eighty days?
3- Why do you think he has the time to spend travelling like this?
4- If you had the chance to travel round the world, which route would you choose?
5- What would you most look forward to seeing on this journey?
6- What did Fix think of Fogg?
أسئلة القصة فى الجزء الخاص بالقصص القصيرة
9- ًWrite a paragraph of ( 7 ) sentences about:
"The role of youth in the progress of the country"
10- A) Translate into Arabic:
1- Verne was born and grew up in a port called Nantes in northern France. This may be why Jules became interested in travel and exploration.
2 - Have you heard of a writer published his work after his death? In 1905, Jules Verne became ill and died. His last novel came out after his death.
B) Translate into English.
- يُعتبر جوليز فيرن أبو الخيال العلمى لأنه كتب قصص عن الطائرات والصواريخ و الغواصات قبل أن تُخترع.